Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is one of the rarest species in the world with an estimated population of no more than 60 individuals in the Park is home (TNUK), and about eight people in the Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam (2000). Javan rhino is also the most endangered rhino species among the five rhino species in the world and in the Red List of the IUCN world conservation body, which is in the category of critically endangered or critically endangered.
Rhinos are believed to have existed since the Tertiary period (65 million years ago). Like the dinosaurs that have been extinct, rhino at 60 million years ago, has 30 species extinction lot. Currently only five remaining rhino species, two species of which are in Indonesia.
Rhinos different species that still survive, namely;
Sumatran rhino (Sumatran rhino) horned two or Dicerorhinus sumatrensis. There on the island of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia and Malaysia).
Javan rhino (Javan rhino) horned one or Rhinocerus sondaicus. There on the island of Java (Indonesia) and Vietnam
Indian rhinoceros (Indian rhino) or Rhinocerus unicornis one-horned. Is to be found in India and Nepal.
Black African horned rhino horn (Black Rhino) or Diceros bicormis. Found in Kenya, Tanzania, Cameroon, South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe.
Two-horned rhinoceros African White (White Rhino) or Cerathoterium simum. There in the Congo.
Physical characteristics of the Javan rhino (Rhinocerus sondaicus)
Javan rhino generally have a gray body color black. Having a horn, with a length of about 25 cm, but it is likely not growing or very small in females. Weight loss of a Javan rhino can reach 900 - 2300 kg with a body length of about 2-4 m. Height can reach up to 1.7 m.
Javan Rhino Skin (Rhinocerus sondaicus) have some sort of folds that look like using a shield of steel. Having a way similar to the Indian rhinoceros, but the body and head smaller with fewer number of folds. Prominent upper lip so that it can be used to grab food and put it into his mouth. Rhinos including the type of shy and solitary (loner).
Population of Javan Rhino (Rhinocerus sondaicus)
In Indonesia, the Javan rhino is expected to spread first in Sumatra and Java. Sumatran rhinoceros at the time this one is spread over Aceh to Lampung. In Java, Java rhinoceros once widespread throughout Java.
Javan rhino is now only found in the Park is home (TNUT), Banten. In addition to Indonesia's Javan Rhino (Rhinocerus sondaicus) are also found in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Individuals outside TNUT last, was found shot by hunters in Tasikmalaya in 1934. Now specimens deposited at the Zoological Museum in Bogor.
Rhino is probably the rarest mammals on earth. Javan rhino population census conducted by the Center for newborn calves, WWF - IP and YMR in 2001 estimated a population of rhinos in Ujung Kulon ranges between 50-60 individuals. The last census conducted Ujung Kulon Central TN 2006 estimated population of Javan rhino range is 20-27 tails. While the population in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, estimated that only 8 tails (2007).
The population of one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Java) that only the 30's tail is much smaller than the population of his brother, the Sumatran rhino is estimated to range between 215 -319 tail. Also much less than the population of other animals such as the Sumatran Tiger (400-500), the Eagles Java (600's tail), Anoa (5000 head).
Javan Rhino Conservation and Protection
In 1910 as a wild animal Javan officially reserved by the Government of the Dutch East Indies, so in 1921 on the recommendation of The Netherlands Indies Society for Protection of Nature, Ujung Kulon by the Dutch government declared a nature reserve. This situation is perpetuated until the status changed to Ujung Kulon Wildlife Refuge under the management of the Bureau of Forestry and the National Park in 1982.
Javan rhino (Rhinoceros-horned one) who live together in one main area is very vulnerable to extinction can be caused by disease, natural disasters such as tsunami, eruption of the Krakatoa volcano, earthquake. In addition, the rhino is also a shortage of space and resources due to the invasion cruising Langkap (Arenga) and competition with bull.
Initial studies WWF identifies suitable habitat, safe and relatively close is Hazy National Park on Mount Salak, West Java, which used to be a Javan rhino habitat. If the second habitat is found, then the rhino healthy, well, and meets the criteria in Ujung Kulon will be sent to new lands. Habitat will also ensure the safety of the population
A little extra; Rhinoceros comes from the Greek as "rhino" meaning "nose" and "ceros" meaning "horn". Sondaicus refers Sunda Islands in Indonesia. "Sunda" means "Java" sedangka "ICUs" in Latin indicate the location